References: Lazy Eye Scientific Research

Lazy Eye Treatment - A Brief History - 900 A.D. to Today
by Susan R. Barry, Ph.D.

New Scientific Research!
Treatment After Age 7...

Lazy Eye Treatment and Cure in Older Children and Adults
by neurobiologist Susan R. Barry, Ph.D. and Rachel Cooper

Fix a Lazy Eye at Any Age!
Age is Not a Factor in How to Fix a Lazy Eye
by Rachel Cooper

Find an Eye Doctor
Treatment for Lazy Eye by Board Certified Specialists

How to Correct Lazy Eye without Surgery...What is Vision Therapy?

How to Fix a Lazy Eye in Children and Adults with Eye Exercises (Vision Therapy)

Lazy Eye Surgery

The information on this advertising-free patient education site is sponsored by Optometrists Network, Senior Editor Rachel Cooper, with special thanks to the following non-profits:
- American Optometric Association (AOA) Infantsee program
- College of Optometrists in Vision Development (COVD)
- Optometric Extension Program Foundation (OEPF)

  1. Baroncelli L, Bonaccorsi J, Milanese M, Bonifacino T, Giribaldi F, Manno I, Cenni MC, Berardi N, Bonanno G, Maffei L, Sale A., Enriched experience and recovery from amblyopia in adult rats: impact of motor, social and sensory components. Neuropharmacology. 2012 Jun;62(7):2388-97.
  2. Kulp MT, Foster NC, Holmes JM, Kraker RT, Melia BM, Repka MX, Tien DR; Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group, Effect of Ocular Alignment on Emmetropization in Children <10 Years With Amblyopia". Am J Ophthalmol. 2012 May 23.
  3. Bandrakalli P, Ganekal S, Jhanji V, Liang YB, Dorairaj S.J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. Prevalence and Causes of Monocular Childhood Blindness in a Rural Population in Southern India 2012 May 22:1-5.
  4. Levi DM, Prentice Award Lecture 2011: Removing the Brakes on Plasticity in the Amblyopic Brain, Optom Vis Sci. 2012 May 10.
  5. Alotaibi AG, Fawazi SM, Alenazy BR, Abu-Amero KK. Outcomes of 3 hours part-time occlusion treatment combined with near activities among children with unilateral amblyopia Saudi Med J. 2012 Apr;33(4):395-8.
  6. Tognini P, Manno I, Bonaccorsi J, Cenni MC, Sale A, Maffei L., Laboratory of Neurobiology, Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, Italy. Environmental enrichment promotes plasticity and visual acuity recovery in adult monocular amblyopic rats PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e34815. Epub 2012 Apr 11.
  7. Knox PJ, Simmers AJ, Gray LS, Cleary M., An exploratory study: prolonged periods of binocular stimulation can provide an effective treatment for childhood amblyopia Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012 Feb 21;53(2):817-24.
  8. Awadein A, Fakhry MA. Changes in binocular function in anisometropic nonstrabismic children with optical correction and occlusion therapy. J AAPOS. 2011 Dec;15(6):545-50.
  9. Baroncelli L, Maffei L, Sale A. New perspectives in amblyopia therapy on adults: a critical role for the excitatory/inhibitory balance. Front Cell Neurosci. 2011;5:25. Epub 2011 Nov 24.
  10. Astle AT, McGraw PV, Webb BS. Strabismus. 2011 Sep;19(3):99-109.
  11. Li RW, Ngo C, Nguyen J, Levi DM. Video-game play induces plasticity in the visual system of adults with amblyopia PLoS Biol. 2011 Aug;9(8):e1001135. Epub 2011 Aug 30.
  12. El-Shamayleh Y, Kiorpes L, Kohn A, Movshon JA. Neurosci. Visual motion processing by neurons in area MT of macaque monkeys with experimental amblyopia. 2010 Sep 8;30(36):12198-209.
  13. Cooper, J, Cooper, R. What is Amblyopia or Lazy Eye?. Optometrists Network, Strabismus. 2001-2005.
  14. Scheiman M, Mitchell GL, Cotter S, et al. the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT) Study Group. A randomized clinical trial of treatments for convergence insufficiency in children. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2005;123:14-24.
  15. Birnbaum MH, Koslowe K, Sanet R. . Am J Optom Phys Optometry 1977; 54:269-275.
  16. Cotter S. Conventional therapy for amblyopia. Problems in Optometry, RP Rutstein (ed), 3(2): 312, 1991.
  17. Garcia RP. Efficacy of vision therapy in amblyopia: a literature review. Am J Optom Phys Opt 1987; 64:393-404.
  18. Wick B, Wingard M, Cotter S, Scheiman M. Anisometropic amblyopia: is the patient ever too old to treat?, Optom Vis Sci. 1992 Nov;69(11):866-78.